A Continuous Performance Test (CPT) has been incorporated into a smartphone application (App) to measure three symptom domains associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. AX-CPT and X-CPT tests & games have been implemented for adults and children.
In the second phase of the project, June-October 2015, new smartphone games were developed using other performance/reaction time tests such as Go/No-go and Stop tasks, one evaluated with children at the University of Nottingham Summer Scientist week in August 2015.
The first App running the AX-CPT (displaying a sequence of letter of the alphabet and recording test performance and hand-held device motion measured on the smartphone sensors) has been pilot-tested on 11 healthy adults over three testing sessions each. From the results of the initial study no differences in performance were found between testing sessions suggesting good test/re-test consistency. A decrement in performance over time was only found for one measure of attention and on one testing session. The CPT showed some sensitivity to ADHD-related symptoms where self-reported impulsive behaviour (using the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale), including 'positive urgency', was related to the CPT measures of impulsivity and activity. User acceptability was good although some design improvements were suggested.
Further pilot testing was conducted 2014 through a BMedPsych student project using a simpler variation of the test, X-CPT, using graphics (images of fruit) as the stimuli and gamified with a score at the end of the test, with 27 children aged 14-16 participating from one school.
Update 2015 - project continuation: New games were developed, based on other performance/reaction time tests and these will be deployed for data collection at University of Nottingham Summer Scientist week with more young people. For the latest details, see article about a new smartphone game Awkward Owls.
References: Young, Z., Craven, M. P., Groom, M., Crowe, J. (2014) Snappy App: a mobile continuous performance test with physical activity measurement for assessing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In Kurosu, M. (ed.) Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 8512, DUXU 2014 / HCII 2014, Part III, Springer, pp. 363-373. Avilable via doi:10.1007/978-3-319-07227-2_35
Craven, M. P., Groom M. J. (2015) Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) monitoring and therapy. 2015 International Conference on Interactive Technologies and Games (iTAG), Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, 22-23 October. IEEE Computer Society conference proceedings, pp. 34-40. ISBN 978-1-4673-7874-1/15. doi: 10.1109/iTAG.2015.9
Contact: Dr. Michael Craven